Text Equivalent: A text equivalent for every non-text element should be provided (e.g., via <alt>, <longdesc>, or in element content).
The <alt> text tag provides a title or descriptive phrase about the image it accompanies. This is essential for users of reader software who are vision impaired and it is valuable for users of graphical browsers who have "load images" turned off. It is also useful for users of text-only WWW tools like Lynx. The <longdesc> tag can be essential when an image conveys important information such as what about the image represents a discovery if the image is a science result image.
Multimedia Equivalent alternatives for any multimedia presentation should be synchronized with the presentation. This states that any dynamic changes which occur based on multimedia content (either in a <frame>, <img>, <object>, or <script>) must also update the "alt" element when it changes.
Color: Web pages should be designed so that all information conveyed with color is also available without color, for example from context or markup. Good primer on Color Blindness Link used with author's permission. Thirty percent of all males suffer from some form of color deficiency rendering colors as grays or spreading one color across several others. Choose text and background colors to provide maximum contrast. Contrast is also very important for individuals who can see but have reduced vision. Good design also refers to the ability of reader software to properly parse a page correctly left to right and up to down.
Style Sheets Documents should be organized so they are readable without requiring an associated style sheet.
Server-side image maps: Redundant text links should be provided for each active region. Most sites have moved away from server-side image maps. The exception is for such things as geographical information system clickable maps.
Client-side image maps: Client-side image maps should be provided instead of server-side images maps except where the regions cannot be defined with an available geometric shape. Modern browsers support client-side image maps, with the addition of <alt> text tags for the image hot spots, assistive technology readers can provide additional clues. However, if the user has "load images" turned off, the only approach is to provide alternative links
Data tables Row and column headers should be identified for data tables.
Using row and column headers becomes crucial when a table is larger than two columns or two rows. Without the headers, assistive technology such as reader software can only recite the table contents with no reference to what that column or row pertains to.
Multi-logic row or column headers Markup should be used to associate data cells and header cells for data tables that have two or more logical levels of row or column headers. Additional information such as <summary> and <scope> can be applied to data tables to render their contents and intent meaningful to users of assistive technology. <Scope>, in particular, can be very useful for column headers.
Frames Title frames with text that facilitates frame identification and navigation. Frames present unique obstacles to users of reader software. A frame-based page should always include an alternative layout (text only) inside a <noframe> element. Also, with the <title>, <name> and <longdesc> tags, frames can be made more navigable for reader software.
Text only equivelant Provide a text-only page, with equivalent information or functionality to make a web site comply with the provisions of this part, when compliance cannot be accomplished in any other way. The content of the text-only page should be updated whenever the primary page changes. Content developers should only resort to alternative pages when other solutions fail. An out-of-date page may be as frustrating as one that is inaccessible since, in both cases, the information presented on the original page is unavailable. Before resorting to an alternative page, reconsider the design of the original page
Scripting languages When pages utilize scripting languages to display content, or to create interface elements, the information provided by the script should be identified with functional text that can be read by assistive technology. The easiest method to provide this accessible alternative is to write HTML code which includes the <noscript> tag. Other options include ensuring that dynamic content and refreshes can be made or are accessible.
Applets, Objects, Plug-ins When a web page requires that an applet, plug-in or other application be present on the client system to interpret page content, the page should provide a link to a plug-in or applet that complies. Objects and data which require plug-in applications can be presented in HTML code in a nested manner such that, if the user's browser can't display the topmost data type, it will attempt to display equivalent data type in the object specification. This is more complicated HTML code to create and requires several data types to be resident on the server, but it is a more complete method of inclusion which favors neither advanced nor dated browser technology.
Forms When electronic forms are designed to be completed on-line, the form should allow people using assistive technology to access the information, field elements, and functionality required for completion and submission of the form, including all directions and cues.
Content tracking A method should be provided that permits users to skip repetitive navigation tasks. There are a number of methods of facilitating navigation for users of assistive technology. Be consistent in page-to-page design, designers can provide a jump-link to bypass a series of links on a page similar to the "back to top" used in long pages, when using multiple links close together, separate the links so the reader software can parse it correctly. Links should be referenced with text which make sense if a user if link-jumping. Also, consider adding a site map, which is useful to nearly everyone.
Timed Response When a timed response is required, the user should be alerted and given sufficient time to indicate more time is required.
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